Understanding the problem (part 1)

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To appreciate the problem of learned unhappiness, it is necessary to have a model to understand human behaviour. In reading the Islamic literature, two models stand out. First, Fazrul Ismail proposed the PEIS model. This stands for physical, emotional, intellectual and spiritual. These are the 4 components that form part of a person's behaviour. Fazrul identifies two kinds of people. The Outside-In person is the one that is constantly reacting to outside stimuli. He / she is easily influenced by external factors many of which he / she does not control. Such persons have regular mood swings depending on whether stimuli (relationships, jobs, stock market,....) is going up or down. The Inside-Out person is the one whose inner spiritual core determines how he / she reacts to external stimuli. Typically, when things are going well, this person feels grateful. When things are not going well, this person is patient because he / she knows that after every difficult there is ease (Qur'an, chapter 94). The video below summarizes the inner strength of the Inside-Out person: he / she focuses on what God has given him / her, not on why other people have certain things that they don't have. The Inside-Out person is naturally resilient, optimistic and has hope.

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